Project in the Fishing Industry - Medan
Child labour in Indonesia is a phenomenon. It has
been a culture, that children has been educated to help their parents
since early age, therefore, it's often found many children involved
in part time work and carried out other light types of work. This
children involvement in such works is valued as something good because
it teaches children responsibility that can give a use for them
in the future.
When Indonesia was facing economic crisis, the children was no
longer doing light or part time works, they had to stop from going
to school and many children were forced by their parents to make
a living. Some of them have to work in the fishing sector (jermal
and tangkul) because they have no other alternatives.
Jermal is fishing rigs constructed on wood stilts in the sea floor.
Jermal is typically found along the Eastern Coast of Four Northern
Sumatra (Langkat, Deli Serdang, Asahan and Labuhan Batu). Besides
jermal, there's also mini jermal called as Tangkul, which typically
found in Langkat Regency. To reach the jermal or tangkul takes 1
to 3 hours by boat. Based on the survey, jermal and tangkul is one
of the worst working environments for children because it harms
their safety, health and development.
Realizing that there are still many children working in dangerous
working environment, particularly in the fishing sector in North
Sumatra, the Governor himself directly leads in supporting the programme
since the beginning. A Letter of Agreement was signed by the ILO
and the North Sumatra Government and ratified by the local government
in 15 April 2000.
The form of the LoA implementation is the establishment of Komisi
Penasehat Program (Programme Advisor Commission), Tim Implementasi
Program (Programme Implementation Team) and the counterpart budget
from the North Sumatra provincial government with an amount about
USD 16,000 in year 2000 and USD 32,000 in year 2001. The Asahan
local government has also been giving financial support with an
amount about USD 1,000 to implement the chicken cultivation programme
in year of 2001.
In May - July 2000, 2 base line surveys were conducted which objective
is to get the total number of jermal and tangkul in Asahan, Labuhan
Batu, Langkat and Deli Serdang area. The number collected based
on the staff monitoring did not cover the whole area, therefore.
Due to the main objective of the baseline surveys is to find out
the children interest when they get back to the land, the surveys
did not reach the actual number, the monitoring by the researcher
staffs did not cover the whole area. In verifying the total number
of jermal and tangkul, an air survey was conducted in 15 December
2000 with the aim is to note jermal and tangkul location in the
Eastern Coast of Northern Sumatra. After the air survey, another
monitoring conducted by the ILO/IPEC staffs to get the accuracy
of the data and it was found that there were 128 jermals and 27
tangkuls. A field survey (the child labour place of origin), which
focus is collecting data on children social economic and demographic
situation, families and villages were also conducted, based on the
survey of jermal and tangkul.
Workshop and Joint Visit
In July 2000, a workshop was conducted which participated
by labour inspector. This workshop resulted a new strategy in developing
work place approach system by joint visit. Continued Workshop was
held in November 2000 at the North Sumatra provincial level, which
resulted an integrated monitoring team that includes ILO/IPEC monitoring
staff, government official and other related components. The first
joint monitoring was carried out in 23 April 2001 and October 2001.
This team had visited 121 journals and 21 tankers with 7 missions
(3 days per mission), and also found 67 children are still working
Another workshop for the jermal foremen and owners because the
foremen are one of the keys in the elimination of child labour effort
in jermal/tangkul was also held. This type of workshop was conducted
for 14 times with 118 participants with the aim is to increase the
awareness about the impact of children working in jermal. The Navy
staffs, provincial labour inspectors and fishery department and
NGOs also attended this workshop.
Based on the strategy, which resulted from the
integrated monitoring, the withdrawing of the children is designed
into 4 forms, which are: n
Voluntarily done by the children itself n Voluntarily
done by the parents and family members n Voluntarily
done by the community (village leader, community member, etc) n Forced
by the integrated monitoring team
Until October 2001, 52 children had been re-integrated to their
families voluntarily and 9 children were withdrawn by forced. In
total, 144 children have been successfully withdrawn from jermal
voluntarily by the ILO/IPEC monitoring team and the parents.
"From Exploitation to Protection and Education"
is the theme of the dialog. The aim of the this interactive dialog
is to give opportunity for the children in formulating their protection
and also raise the awareness about the worst forms of child labour
amongst all parties, such as the executive, judicative, legislative,
military, police, NGOs, workers, university students and media.
This show was attended by 160 children who consist of child labour,
street children, blind children, and 120 adults from many institutions
and NGOs in North Sumatra. This show was also completed with music
show and songs from child labour and blind children and also painting
and photos exhibition about children who work in the
worst work places such as jermals, plantation and street and other
ILO/IPEC Fishing sector has database, which regularly
organized. The information from the database is used in the planning,
programme policy decision making and also to inform the public about
the quantitative information such as the number of children found
and rescued, monitoring visits, programme development and the percentage
of the achieved progress. The data base system will make the monitoring
system more effective and efficient.
The Institution Capacity Building
A Design, Management and Evaluation (DME) training
was held in November 2000, which participated, by 18 participants
from NGOs and workers. This occasion was aimed to get participation
and improve the future partners capacity. The main result of the
DME training is the improvement of child labour elimination issue
on the NGOs and workers level.
Social Protection Programme and Partners
The social protection programme is given to the
ex-jermal child labour, their siblings or friends who are considered
potential to work in the dangerous sector. This programme implemented
in various activities, such as: temporary shelter, micro credit
programme, fungus and vegetables cultivation, and chicken, duck,
goat farm, etc.
Besides that, there's also a skill programme which refers to the
children talent based on the survey that had been conducted in 2000
such as mechanics and electronic skill and also furniture skill
which conducted by Medan Occupational Learning Centre in the children
hometown or MTU (mobile training unit).
This program is going as planned and results a
media product, such as Insersi, jingle and talk show in June, July,
Augustus, September and October 2001 and it's broadcasted in 10
local radios which covers almost all the targeted districts. The
radio coverage estimated 5.000.000 listeners were reached.
Mass Media Attention
Since the programme started in 1999, it has taken
the mass media attention, particularly in year 2001, whether it's
local or international media. From the project database, they are
27 newspaper coverage, 9 radio interviews and 8 television interviews.
In April 2001, the project was visited by 3 international television
team: Sport Germany TV, CNN Australia and SVT Sweden. In July 2001,
the BBC London made a direct coverage to Jermal. In December 2001,
the project was also visited by a Germany mass media, Frankfurter
Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, which broadcasted in Germany version
and English and the Times magazine also published in article about
child labour on jermal in their February 4th, 2002 edition.
The ILO/IPEC monitoring staffs find lesser jermal
and tangkul, which employ children these days. This situation shows
that the activities, which are carried out whether, it's on the
sea (by the monitoring team) or land (by partners) considered successful.
The workshop for the foremen, the social protection programme and
regular monitoring to jermals/tangkuls and the children hometown,
very supported the awareness raising on the danger of working on
Realizing the increasing of child labour number and the widespread
of dangerous working place, therefore it is urgent to think on the
alternatives of efforts to address the children who are working
in dangerous working environment which can bring harm to their mental,
physical and health development.
The children mental condition, home town, educational level, family
background, social economics, ethnics and religion should be considered
in making action programme to meet the need of children who ever
employed on jermals for quite sometimes. An immediate action should
have a big objective that is strengthening the children education
so they can have capability in the future competition. This immediate
action programme should be based on the integrated framework, which
puts the community willingness to give the best for their children
Social agreement to stop child labour is important
to build while at the same time the law reinforcement for child
protection is being implemented. To reach the more understanding
about the complexity of child labour issues and national commitment
in addressing the child labour issues, particularly the fishing
sector, in the future the ILO/IPEC fishing project will:
Extend the working sector, in which ILO/IPEC Fishing Sector project
will no longer only dealing with the child labour on jermals and
tangkuls, but also other sectors which in its nature can bring danger
to the working child labour. This activity will be integrated into
the fishing sector. n Involve
district government down to the village apparatus in dialog and
action activity to eliminate child labour in the fishing sector.