Children are increasingly being bought and sold
within and across national borders by organized networks. Their
vulnerability to exploitation is even greater when they arrive in
another country, where they find themselves at the mercy of the
employer and authorities, often with ties to their families severed.
Although we know very little about the situation in Indonesia and
even less about the scale, we have enough evidence to know this
untolerable form of exploitation of children is happening in Indonesia.
National and International networks exist to transport children
(under 18) from one place to another by means of violence, threat,
deception or debt bondage.
Purposes of trafficking in Indonesia
Children are trafficked for: nProstitution and pornography,
n Begging and soliciting n Domestic service nOther exploitative work, such
as on fishing platforms (jermals), work on plantations, work in
construction sites, small shops, factories
Which children are most at risk of being trafficked? n Children from politically
disturbed areas n Those living in economic
hardship n Street children n Beggars n Orphans nChildren in slums n Children from socially/economically
marginalized groups n Girls particularly for commercial
Push and pull factors in Indonesia n Early marriage and early
divorces nEarly labour participation
and early drop-out from school n Lack of birth registration
and falsification of Ids n Social conflicts and war n Lack of legal protection nPoverty
IPEC targets in addressing the trafficking children
The ILO's IPEC is working to develop effective preventive measures
as well as regional responses to the problem. For example, in Asia
regional strategies are being developed in the Mekong subregion
and South Asia. Trafficking of children is mentioned specifically
in the ILO Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour. By
ratifying this Convention, the Indonesian Government committed itself
to immediately take measures to put an end to this practice.
IPEC Jakarta is developing a programme on child
trafficking in Indonesia. This programme will draw upon the experience
in other countries, in particular the programme in the Mekong subregion.
Possible interventions will be: n In depth research to determine
the scale of the problem nAssistance to develop a policy
at national and at district level how to eliminate child trafficking n Awareness raising to inform
communities and to sensitize policymakers n Direct action for children
rescued from trafficking n Assistance to strengthen
GDE the Beggar
My friends call me Gde. I was born in Bunut,
Trunyan-Bangli, Bali. I am now about 14 years old. Last year
I have been offered to work in Denpasar by an older man. I
did not know this man before. He promised to finance my study
to the Evening Junior High School in Denpasar. Although I
doubted this generous offer, I accepted it. I was so happy
and so were my parents. I went to Denpasar with that man.
Nevertheless, things did not go like I had wished in Denpasar.
Together with other kids from Madya and Karangasem village,
we were gathered in one room.
According to the other kids, the man's name
is Pak De. The next day, he told us to beg. I could not do
much but doing what he told me. He is so fierce and threatening
us. Every morning we are sent to a place by a car. We should
beg door to door. He will pick us up in the evening in a pointed
place. We do this job for Pak De everyday and we should give
all the money to him. He only gives us a small amount of money.
Every day I do ngangendong (begging for "in kind"
not cash) and get about 5-10 kilos of rice. He must have gotten
a lot of money if he exchanges the rice for cash.