Many people know child labour in its urban such as in the formal sectors (in factories or industrial form) and informal sectors (working on the streets, working in the house, etc). However, most working children can be found in rural areas. Worldwide, but also in Indonesia, they represent about 70% of the total number of working children. Most of them working for the family owned plantation.

One of the most dangerous occupations
Occupational health and safety experts consider agriculture to be among the most dangerous of occupations. The hazards children face, include:
-Climatic exposure
-Work that is too heavy for young bodies
-Accidents such as cuts from sharpened tools
-Use of toxic chemicals and
-motorized equipment in more modern agriculture, usually without the benefit of training or safety precautions
-exposure to organic dusts

Poor access to health facilities and education
In many countries the hazards and risks to health are compounded by poor access to health facilities and education, poor housing and sanitation, and the inadequate diet of rural workers. Primary school enrolment rates are often lower for children who work in agriculture. Even if children attend school, their long working hours leave them exhausted and their studies neglected.

Legal protection
Workers in agriculture, for example plantation workers, have no labour rights at all. They work long hours, 7 days a week, without any leave days. They usually are paid by the kilo of picked leaves, or by rubber tapped tree. Children tend to assist their parents to meet their daily target, but often are not registered as an employee themselves.

Inspection visits are rare, because:
-the places where children work often are family undertakings
-the agriculture industry is geographically dispersed

Children working in agriculture in Indonesia

Many children assist their parents in agricultural family businesses. As long as the work is not hazardous and they do not work too long hours, children under 15 work a few hours and can attend school, there is no problem. However, many children are used as an economic asset by their parents, they work long hours, carry heavy loads, spray pesticides and do not attend school. Another form is children assisting their parents as workers in agricultural businesses of others, for example plantations.

NGO works together with Kyai to remove children from work in plantations
In the tea and rubber plantations in East Java, many children work to assist their parents meeting their daily targets or earning some extra money. In the rubber plantations children work in the night to early morning to tap the trees. Most of them dropped out of primary school or did not continue after. NGO Paramitra in Malang, East Java, is supported by IPEC to combat child labour in the plantations in East Java. Since the area is strictly religious and the people obey their religious leaders, the Kyai, Paramitra managed to involve the Kyai. Parents were convinced of the importance of education, and an agreement was reached to send their children at least 3 days a week to school. Next to the Pesantren, a special school building was set up, to provide non-formal education and vocational training to these children.

Exposure to pesticides
Exposure to pesticides poses a considerably higher risk to children than adults and has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, neuropathy and immune system abnormalities